Failure mode of semiconductor

Packaging failures[ edit ] The majority of electronic parts failures are packaging -related.

Failure mode of semiconductor

Semiconductor Failure Analysis Semiconductor Failure analysis FA is the process of determining how or why a semiconductor device has failed, often performed as a series of steps known as FA techniques. Failure analysis is necessary in order to understand what caused the failure and how it can be prevented in the future.

Electrical failure can either be functional or parametric. Functional failure refers to the inability of a device to perform its intended function. Parametric failure refers to the inability of a device to meet the electrical specifications for a measurable characteristic such as leakage current that does not directly pertain to functionality.

Thus, a parametric failure may be present even if the device is still functional or able to perform its intended function.

For example, a DAC that can convert digital data into the correct analog voltage but draws excessive supply current is a parametric failure, but one that does not convert data at all is a functional failure.

A device is said to be failing catastrophically if it is grossly failing all parametric and functional test blocks. Failure analysis starts with failure verification. It is important to validate the failure of a sample prior to failure analysis in order to conserve valuable FA resources.

Failure verification is also done to characterize the failure mode. Good characterization of the failure mode is necessary to make the FA efficient and accurate. After failure verification, the analyst subjects the sample to various FA techniques step by step, collecting attributes and other observations along the way.

Non-destructive FA techniques are done before destructive ones. Any inconsistency in results must be resolved before proceeding to the next step. For example, a pin that exhibits a broken wire during X-ray inspection but also shows an acceptable curve trace during curve tracing can not happen, so this inconsistency must be resolved by verifying which of the two results is correct.

In general, the results of the various FA techniques would collectively point to the real failure site. The FA process is finished once there are enough information to make a conclusion about the location of the failure site and cause or mechanism of failure. Click here to see the various FA Techniques.The way a device fails is called a failure mechanism.

Typically, electricity, heat, chemicals, radiation, mechanical stresses, and other factors cause the failures. It’s important to draw a distinction between mechanisms and causes.

For example, a device might fail due to an electrical mechanism caused by mechanical stress. Given that the failure mode of a semiconductor device is, at best, a description of a defective part’s errant behavior, it is not always an explicit indicator of the type of defect an analyst is looking for.

Failure mode of semiconductor

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Reliability Factor and Failure Mechanism of Semiconductor Devices The reliability of semiconductor devices depends on their resistance to stresses applied to the devices, such as electric stress, thermal stress, mechanical stress, and external stress (humidity, etc.).

The primary failure mechanisms include: • Avalanche-related failure • Thermal runaway • Thermal secondary breakdown • Metallization failure • Polarity reversals. When a semiconductor junction fails because of overstress, a low-resistance path is formed that shunts the junction. This path is not a true short, but it is a close approximation.

Dec 04,  · Discrete Semiconductor Failure Modes. Failures of semiconductor devices in storage, or dormant applications, are the result of latent manufacturing defects that were not detected during device screening tests.

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