Religious terms starting with the letter "D" Sponsored link. A North American term used by the Zoroastrian faith to refer to their house of worship.
The best known version of consequentialism is utilitarianism. This theory defines morality in terms of the maximization Benefits teleological theory morality net expectable utility for all parties affected by a decision or action.
Although forms of utilitarianism have been put forward and debated since ancient times, the modern theory is most often associated with the British philosopher John Stuart Mill who developed the theory from a plain hedonistic version put forward by his mentor Jeremy Bentham As most clearly stated by Mill, the basic principle of utilitarianism is: Actions are right to the degree that they tend to promote the greatest good for the greatest number.
Of course, we are still unclear about what constitutes "the greatest good. For Mill, however, not all pleasures were equally worthy. He defined "the good" in terms of well-being Aristotle's eudaimoniaand distinguished not just quantitatively but also qualitatively between various forms of pleasure.
In either case, the principle defines the moral right in terms of an objective, material good. Both men insisted that "the greatest number" included all who were affected by the action in question with "each to count as one, and no one as more than one.
Another goal-directed theory is egoism, which promotes the greatest good for the self alone. Utilitarianism is a simple theory and its results are easy to apply.
It also allows for degrees of right and wrong, and for every situation the choice between actions is clear-cut: There are several objections, however— 1. It is not always clear what the outcome of an action will be, nor is it always possible to determine who will be affected by it.
Judging an action by the outcome is therefore hard to do beforehand. The calculation required to determine the right is both complicated and time consuming. Many occasions will not permit the time and many individuals may not even be capable of the calculations.
Since the greatest good for the greatest number is described in aggregate terms, that good may be achieved under conditions that are harmful to some, so long as that harm is balanced by a greater good. The theory fails to acknowledge any individual rights that could not be violated for the sake of the greatest good.
Indeed, even the murder of an innocent person would seem to be condoned if it served the greater number. In response to objections such as these, some proponents of utilitarianism have proposed a modification of the theory.
Let us call the original form: Act Utilitarianism— each individual action is to be evaluated directly in terms of the utility principle. The proposed improvement is: Rule Utilitarianism— behavior is evaluated by rules that, if universally followed would lead to the greatest good for the greatest number.
Thus, rule utilitarianism could address the fourth and fifth objections mentioned above by using the utility principle to justify rules establishing human rights and the universal prohibition of certain harms. But it may not be so simple. If the justification of the rule is found in the utility principle, what about the case where violating the rule leads to the achievement of the greatest good for the greatest number?Teleological ethics Consequentialism.
Consequentialist ethics come from the teleological branch of ethical theory. You will remember that teleological theories focus on the goal of the ethical action.
Consequentialist theories are those that base moral judgements on the outcomes of . Deontological and Teleological Ethics. Advantages and Disadvantages. STUDY. PLAY.
Advantage of deontological ethics. Emphasises the value of every human being, providing a basis for human rights. Advantage of deontological ethics.
Says some acts are always wrong. I accept certain facets of evolutionary theory, but to be honest, most people barely even understand what it means anymore. It has become an ‘accordion’ word that can be stretched out or squeezed in to claim as much or as little as is necessary.
Indeed, each of the branches of deontological ethics—the agent-centered, the patient-centered, and the contractualist—can lay claim to being Kantian.
The agent-centered deontologist can cite Kant's locating the moral quality of acts in the principles or maxims on which the agent acts and not primarily in those acts' effects on others.
The Euthyphro dilemma is found in Plato's dialogue Euthyphro, in which Socrates asks Euthyphro, "Is the pious (τὸ ὅσιον) loved by the gods because it is pious, or is it pious because it is loved by the gods?" It implies that if moral authority must come from the gods it doesn't have to be good, and if moral authority must be good it does not have to come from the gods.
Teleological ethics, (teleological from Greek telos, “end”; logos, “science”), theory of morality that derives duty or moral obligation from what is good or desirable as an end to be achieved.
Also known as consequentialist ethics, it is opposed to deontological ethics (from the Greek deon.