What Are Five Properties of Gases? Johnson; Updated March 13, Gases were an enigma to early scientists who were baffled by their freedom of movement and apparent weightlessness compared to liquids and solids.
Atmospheric pressure Atmospheric pressure at a particular location is the force per unit area perpendicular to a surface determined by the weight of the vertical column of atmosphere above that location. On Earth, units of air pressure are based on the internationally recognized standard atmosphere atmwhich is defined as It is measured with a barometer.
Atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing altitude due to the diminishing mass of gas above. The height at which the pressure from an atmosphere declines by a factor of e an irrational number with a value of 2. For an atmosphere with a uniform temperature, the scale height is proportional to the temperature and inversely proportional to the product of the mean molecular mass of dry air and the local acceleration of gravity at that location.
For such a model atmosphere, the pressure declines exponentially with increasing altitude. However, atmospheres are not uniform in temperature, so estimation of the atmospheric pressure at any particular altitude is more complex.
Atmospheric escape Surface gravity differs significantly among the planets. For example, the large gravitational force of the giant planet Jupiter retains light gases such as hydrogen and helium that escape from objects with lower gravity.
Secondly, the distance from the Sun determines the energy available to heat atmospheric gas to the point where some fraction of its molecules' thermal motion exceed the planet's escape velocityallowing those to escape a planet's gravitational grasp. Thus, distant and cold TitanTritonand Pluto are able to retain their atmospheres despite their relatively low gravities.
Since a collection of gas molecules may be moving at a wide range of velocities, there will always be some fast enough to produce a slow leakage of gas into space.
Lighter molecules move faster than heavier ones with the same thermal kinetic energyand so gases of low molecular weight are lost more rapidly than those of high molecular weight. It is thought that Venus and Mars may have lost much of their water when, after being photo dissociated into hydrogen and oxygen by solar ultravioletthe hydrogen escaped.
Earth 's magnetic field helps to prevent this, as, normally, the solar wind would greatly enhance the escape of hydrogen. Objects that have no atmosphere, or that have only an exosphere, have terrain that is covered in craters. Without an atmosphere, the planet has no protection from meteoroidsand all of them collide with the surface as meteorites and create craters.
Most meteoroids burn up as meteors before hitting a planet's surface. When meteoroids do impact, the effects are often erased by the action of wind. In addition, since liquid s can not exist without pressure, an atmosphere allows liquid to be present at the surface, resulting in lakesrivers and oceans.
Earth and Titan are known to have liquids at their surface and terrain on the planet suggests that Mars had liquid on its surface in the past.
Composition[ edit ] Earth's atmospheric gases scatter blue light more than other wavelengths, giving Earth a blue halo when seen from space A planet's initial atmospheric composition is related to the chemistry and temperature of the local solar nebula during planetary formation and the subsequent escape of interior gases.
The original atmospheres started with a rotating disc of gases that collapsed to form a series of spaced rings that condensed to form the planets. The planet's atmospheres were then modified over time by various complex factors, resulting in quite different outcomes. The atmospheres of the planets Venus and Mars are primarily composed of carbon dioxidewith small quantities of nitrogenargonoxygen and traces of other gases.
The composition of Earth's atmosphere is largely governed by the by-products of the life that it sustains. Dry air from Earth's atmosphere contains The low temperatures and higher gravity of the Solar System's giant planets — JupiterSaturnUranus and Neptune —allow them more readily to retain gases with low molecular masses.
These planets have hydrogen—helium atmospheres, with trace amounts of more complex compounds. Two satellites of the outer planets possess significant atmospheres.
Titana moon of Saturn, and Tritona moon of Neptune, have atmospheres mainly of nitrogen. When in the part of its orbit closest to the Sun, Pluto has an atmosphere of nitrogen and methane similar to Triton's, but these gases are frozen when it is farther from the Sun. Other bodies within the Solar System have extremely thin atmospheres not in equilibrium.
These include the Moon sodium gasMercury sodium gasEuropa oxygenIo sulfurand Enceladus water vapor. The first exoplanet whose atmospheric composition was determined is HD ba gas giant with a close orbit around a star in the constellation Pegasus.
Hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and sulfur have been detected in the planet's inflated atmosphere.Corium (also called fuel containing material (FCM) or lava-like fuel containing material (LFCM)) is the lava-like mixture of fissile material created in a nuclear reactor's core during a nuclear meltdown..
It consists of nuclear fuel, fission products, control rods, structural materials from the affected parts of the reactor, products of their chemical reaction with air, water and steam, and. Mechanical Properties of Concrete and Steel Reinforced Concrete (RC, also called RCC for Reinforced Cement Concrete) is a widely used construction material in structural analysis and design point of view, RC is a complex composite material.
(concrete, steel) with entirely different mechanical properties. Stress-Strain Curve for Concrete. Coal fly ash, an industrial by-product, is derived from coal combustion in thermal power plants. It is one of the most complex anthropogenic materials, and its improper disposal has become an environmental concern and resulted in a waste of recoverable resources.
Cement Standards and Concrete Standards ASTM's cement and concrete standards are instrumental in the evaluation and testing of concrete, cement, and aggregates.
Concrete can have different properties depending upon the mixture that is used in creating it, which contains cement, chemical admixtures, and . The Public Inspection page on schwenkreis.com offers a preview of documents scheduled to appear in the next day's Federal Register issue.
The Public Inspection page may also include documents scheduled for later issues, at the request of the issuing agency. analysis of the physical-mechanical concrete properties WHEN CONCRETE WASTE ADDITIVES ARE USED IN THE MIXTURES Olga Finoženok 1, Ramun Žurauskien 2 Rimvydas Žurauskas 3.