Bellovin, Jason Nieh Email privacy is of crucial importance. Existing email encryption approaches are comprehensive but seldom used due to their complexity and inconvenience. We take a new approach to simplify email encryption and improve its usability by implementing receiver-controlled encryption:
Solar thermal power Solar water heatersalso called solar domestic hot water systems, can be a cost-effective way to generate hot water for a home.
They can be used in any climate, and the fuel they use—sunshine—is free. An active solar collector system can produce about 80 to gallons of hot water per day. A passive system will have a lower capacity. Direct circulation systems loop the domestic water through the panels. They should not be used in climates with temperatures below freezing.
Indirect circulation loops glycol or some other fluid through the solar panels and uses a heat exchanger to heat up the domestic water.
The two most common types of collector panels are Flat-Plate and Evacuated-tube. With these higher efficiencies, Evacuated-tube solar collectors can also produce higher-temperature space heating, and even higher temperatures for absorption cooling systems.
With the use of solar collectors, the energy use is cut in half.
The up-front cost of installing solar collectors is high, but with the annual energy savings, payback periods are relatively short. Like an air conditioner, an ASHP can take heat from a relatively cool space e.
However, unlike an air conditioner, the condenser and evaporator of an ASHP can switch roles and absorb heat from the cool outside air and dump it into a warm house. Air-source heat pumps are inexpensive relative to other heat pump systems.
However, the efficiency of air-source heat pumps decline when the outdoor temperature is very cold or very hot; therefore, they are only really applicable in temperate climates. The difference between the two heat pumps is that the ground-source has one of its heat exchangers placed underground—usually in a horizontal or vertical arrangement.
Ground-source takes advantage of the relatively constant, mild temperatures underground, which means their efficiencies can be much greater than that of an air-source heat pump. The in-ground heat exchanger generally needs a considerable amount of area. Designers have placed them in an open area next to the building or underneath a parking lot.
They are also quieter and can also be applied to other functions like domestic hot water heating. However, the up-front costs can be more than offset by the decrease in energy costs.
The reduction in energy costs is especially apparent in areas with typically hot summers and cold winters. If the building is located near a body of water, the pond or lake could be used as a heat source or sink. With higher fan power requirements and inefficient heat transfer, Air-earth heat pumps are generally not practical for major construction.
Sustainable building materials[ edit ] See also: Green building Some examples of sustainable building materials include recycled denim or blown-in fiber glass insulation, sustainably harvested wood, TrassLinoleum sheep wool, concrete high and ultra high performance  roman self-healing concrete panels made from paper flakes, baked earth, rammed earth, clay, vermiculite, flax linnen, sisal, seegrass, expanded clay grains, coconut, wood fiber plates, calcium sand stone, locally obtained stone and rock, and bamboowhich is one of the strongest and fastest growing woody plantsand non-toxic low- VOC glues and paints.
Vegetative cover or shield over building envelopes also helps in the same. Paper which is fabricated or manufactured out of forest wood is supposedly hundred percent recyclable.
Recycled materials[ edit ] Recycling items for building Sustainable architecture often incorporates the use of recycled or second hand materials, such as reclaimed lumber and recycled copper.
The reduction in use of new materials creates a corresponding reduction in embodied energy energy used in the production of materials. Often sustainable architects attempt to retrofit old structures to serve new needs in order to avoid unnecessary development.
Architectural salvage and reclaimed materials are used when appropriate. When older buildings are demolished, frequently any good wood is reclaimed, renewed, and sold as flooring.
Any good dimension stone is similarly reclaimed. Many other parts are reused as well, such as doors, windows, mantels, and hardware, thus reducing the consumption of new goods.
When new materials are employed, green designers look for materials that are rapidly replenished, such as bamboowhich can be harvested for commercial use after only 6 years of growth, sorghum or wheat straw, both of which are waste material that can be pressed into panels, or cork oakin which only the outer bark is removed for use, thus preserving the tree.
When possible, building materials may be gleaned from the site itself; for example, if a new structure is being constructed in a wooded area, wood from the trees which were cut to make room for the building would be re-used as part of the building itself.
Lower volatile organic compounds[ edit ] Low-impact building materials are used wherever feasible:Get up-to-the-minute environmentally-friendly (or egregiously unfriendly) car news, reviews, high-quality photos and commentary about living green. Green Architecture is a method to reduce the impact on our environment by using natural resources like energy, water, and the materials that are used in the structure recycled materials or the fixtures used in the home with energy saving features, as well as making a healthier environment.
May 02, · The American Institute of Architects (AIA) and its Committee on the Environment (COTE) have selected the top ten sustainable architecture and ecological design projects for EMBC´18 40th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Hilton Hawaiian Village Waikiki Beach Resort, Honolulu, USA.
Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. American Chemical Society; Green Chemistry; synthetic methods should be designed to use and generate substances that possess little or no toxicity to human health and the environment.
so that at the end of their function they break down into innocuous degradation products and do not persist in the environment. Real-time analysis for.