Gordesiani, Logos, Tbilisi Kaukhchishvili, Executive Editor — L. Kvirikashvili, Logos, Tbilisivol. The roots of some folk texts with no ritual function nowadays are closely connected with a remote rite.
It does not, it should be observed, aim at being a history of socialist thought: It is admittedly a cognate subject; but again, the effort, doubtless incumbent on all of us, to disentangle the confusion of ideas making up the environment in which we live, would not be materially aided by embarking on the vain attempt for instance to understand the cross-currents and interrelations among the socialist parties in France in the second half of the nineteenth century.
Here we are primarily concerned with 'ideas,' as these ideas have been reflected in the minds of the men who have been most influential in shaping the socialist tradition. As a consequence of this method of approach it is inevitable that many connecting links should be omitted and even.
It is suggested, however, with some confidence, that if the ordinary man, who is the bulk of the population, can acquire a knowledge of what Godwin or Proudhon, or Marx or Lenin stood for, he may, without great immediate loss, leave to the academic expert the fascinating pursuit of conjectural sources and hidden influences.
One question barks for an answer on the threshold of our jqurney ; but Prudence and Cowardice a combination of potent masters unite in suggesting that the question should meantime be avoided. What, it may at the outset reasonably be asked, are we to understand by socialism?
The definitions of socialism that strew the expositions and the criticisms of socialism furnish a depressing prospect. Some are foolish; some are vacuous; some are contradictory; some, which appear commendable up to a point, leave gaping omissions.
On the other hand, there is not the same disagreement as to who are the' great socialists,' to fall back on the title of Mr. Muckle's little book I-though, admittedly, there are not a few of Mr. Muckle's team who would be entirely excluded on any strict interpretation of most of the most-favoured definitions.
For the purpose of our journey through time we shall accordingly guide ourselves, not so much by the application of a definition of socialism postulated in advance, as by accepting somewhat unquestioningly " those whom the general consensus of opinion has agreed to designate as ' the great socialists.
For the present, therefore, without suggesting that it even remotely foreshadows a definition, we shall accept all who, urged by a passion for justice or equality, or by a sensitiveness to the evils of this present world, seek a better world, not by way of reform, but by way of subversion using the word in its literal and neutral sense --': It may be convenient if in this Prologue some indication is given of the prominent figures selected to illustrate the development of socialist thought.
In the modern western world, our way of thinking derives largely, on the one hand, from the Jews, modified and supplemented later by Christianity, and on the other hand from Greece. These together provide in large measure the pit from which have been dug our thoughts on" the relation of man to man, of man to society, of man to God.
Inevitably many of the ideas which lie at the root of socialism were foreshadowed and more than foreshadowed in the Mosaic Law, in the indignation of the prophets, in the speculatipns of the Greek philosophers, and in the teaching of the early Church.
The first two chapters accordingly seek to determine how far socialism may justifiably appeal to Greek philosophy; how far it may claim that it finds inspiration and support in the Jewish and Christian traditions.
The third chapter may also in a sense be regarded as concerned with background-with the inspirations leading to socialism, rather than with socialism itself. A curious and fascinating side-line in the literature of socialism is concerned with the portrayal of imaginary and ideal societies, where, without any of the pangs of birth so familiar to Marxthe perfect world is represented, in the guise of fiction; as a going and highly successful concern.
The greatest of all Utopias is, 1 Friedrich Muckle: The third chapter is accordingly devoted to the Utopia of Thomas More ; and since Utopias play so large a part in later socialist literature down to Looking Backward and Newsfrom Nowheresome attention is devoted to two of the other early Utopias, as represented by Campanella and Fenelon In the fourth chapter we approach the questionings out of which modern socialism has sprung.
Here we are concerned with the prelude to the French Revolution, where, of course, the greatest name is that of Rousseau In this chapter there. Though he is hardly at home with these companions, there is also included here a slight account of Fichtewho represents the enlightenment of the late eighteenth century, and who became influential in the authoritarian tradition of Germany.
In the following chapter 5 we meet one of the enigmatic figures of English literature. William Godwin appears here as the first, and perhaps the greatest and most consistent of the anarchists, and, as such, he opens a line of thought which has ever since been in part intermingled with, and in part opposed to, socialism.
Godwin was an anarchist because he was so pre-eminently a man of reason and inhuman logic. An anarchist society is conceivable only if all concerned are the embodiment of reason and restraint.
Not merely therefore should an anarchist be a man of reason; he should also combine with his own reason a wholly unreasonable belief that all others are equally reasonable. It is Godwin's distinction that, more successfully than.
The next stage brings us to the group of writers among whom in the foolish metaphor we must look for the. They represent what Marx later called in derision theUtopian Socialists'; they have also, again with a touch of contempt, been classed as 'associationists.
Saint-Simona turbulent, tumultuous, restless, forward-looking mind, was in himself rather a prophet of big business, of the totalitarian State and of the virtue of leadership; but his followers, the Saint-Simonian school; gave his doctrine a slight modification which had far-reaching effects in making Saint-Simonism a profound socialist influence.
Charles Fourier is likewise a father of socialism in whom the old Adam of individualism dies hard; for he loved property, and he loved inequality and he loved most of the things that a socialist ought not to.
But he let his terrible imagination loose in criticising this poor civilisation of ours, and in his own unbalanced way he preached the gospel of co-operation as a way of escape.
Saint-Simon and Fourier have high claims to be regarded as the most interesting and piquant figures in the history of socialism: The third of this group.
Lastly there is Louis Blancwho, though unquestionably an associationist in virtue of his plan of co-operative associations, yet in many ways belongs to a somewhat later era because of his frank acceptance of the existing State as the appropriate machine for bringing the new world into existence.the- socialist tradition moses to lenin longmans, green and co.
ltd. of paternoster row 43 albert drive, london, s.w. 19 nicol road, bombay 17 cidt. author's attitude toward the writing, the reader, the subject and/or the people, places, and events in a work - serious, ironic, sad, happy, private, public, angry.
The greatest project of French Enlightenment. and by an analysis of the “Systeme général de la connoissance humaine suivant le chancelier Bacon” (General System of Human Knowledge according While Vico probably believes that this is the right way of systematizing knowledge also for his own enlightened age.
mediates already in its title. Consider the use of an anecdote to illustrate something like the literary version of "a picture is worth a thousand words." For example, use anecdotes to show a person's character or state of mind: Albert Einstein: "There was something elusively whimsical about Einstein.
Use of Ethos, Logos, and Pathos in Julius Caesar, by William Shakespeare - Persuasion is a natural method many people use to influence a person's beliefs, attitudes, intentions, motivations, or . The title of his first chapter, ‘The Ambivalence of Hindsight’, characterizes the thoughtful way Dentith approaches the concept of hindsight, its influence on our reading practices, and the way he reads the literature in his study.