Yinger suggested the use of the term contraculture "wherever the normative system of a group contains, as a primary element, a theme of conflict with the values of the total society, where personality variables are directly involved in the development and maintenance of the group's values, and wherever its norms can be understood only by reference to the relationships of the group to a surrounding dominant culture. Counterculture might oppose mass culture or "media culture" or middle-class culture and values. It typically involves criticism or rejection of currently powerful institutions, with accompanying hope for a better life or a new society.
Social Movements Three Major Perspectives in Sociology Sociologists analyze social phenomena at different levels and from different perspectives. The pioneering European sociologists, however, also offered a broad conceptualization of the fundamentals of society and its workings.
Their views form the basis for today's theoretical perspectives, or paradigms, which provide sociologists with an orienting framework—a philosophical position—for asking certain kinds of questions about society and its people.
Sociologists today employ three primary theoretical perspectives: These perspectives offer sociologists theoretical paradigms for explaining how society influences people, and vice versa.
Each perspective uniquely conceptualizes society, social forces, and human behavior see Table 1. The symbolic interactionist perspective The symbolic interactionist perspective, also known as symbolic interactionism, directs sociologists to consider the symbols and details of everyday life, what these symbols mean, and how people interact with each other.
Although symbolic interactionism traces its origins to Max Weber's assertion that individuals act according to their interpretation of the meaning of their world, the American philosopher George H. Mead — introduced this perspective to American sociology in the s.
According to the symbolic interactionist perspective, people attach meanings to symbols, and then they act according to their subjective interpretation of these symbols.
Verbal conversations, in which spoken words serve as the predominant symbols, make this subjective interpretation especially evident. Conversation is an interaction of symbols between individuals who constantly interpret the world around them.
Of course, anything can serve as a symbol as long as it refers to something beyond itself. Written music serves as an example. The black dots and lines become more than mere marks on the page; they refer to notes organized in such a way as to make musical sense.
Thus, symbolic interactionists give serious thought to how people act, and then seek to determine what meanings individuals assign to their own actions and symbols, as well as to those of others.
Consider applying symbolic interactionism to the American institution of marriage. American society attaches general meanings to these symbols, but individuals also maintain their own perceptions of what these and other symbols mean.
Much faulty communication can result from differences in the perception of the same events and symbols. The perspective also receives criticism for slighting the influence of social forces and institutions on individual interactions. The functionalist perspective According to the functionalist perspective, also called functionalism, each aspect of society is interdependent and contributes to society's functioning as a whole.
The government, or state, provides education for the children of the family, which in turn pays taxes on which the state depends to keep itself running. That is, the family is dependent upon the school to help children grow up to have good jobs so that they can raise and support their own families.
If all goes well, the parts of society produce order, stability, and productivity. If all does not go well, the parts of society then must adapt to recapture a new order, stability, and productivity.
For example, during a financial recession with its high rates of unemployment and inflation, social programs are trimmed or cut. Schools offer fewer programs.
Families tighten their budgets.
And a new social order, stability, and productivity occur. Functionalists believe that society is held together by social consensus, or cohesion, in which members of the society agree upon, and work together to achieve, what is best for society as a whole.Attitudes toward homosexuality have changed in developed societies in the latter part of the 20th century, accompanied by a greater acceptance of gay people into both secular and religious institutions.
Gay liberation (considered a precursor of various modern LGBT social movements) was known for its links to the counterculture of the time (e.g.
groups like the Radical Faeries), and for the gay liberationists' intent to transform or abolish fundamental institutions of society such as gender and the nuclear family; in general, the politics were.
Three Major Perspectives in Sociology From concrete interpretations to sweeping generalizations of society and social behavior, sociologists study everything from specific events (the micro level of analysis of small social patterns) to the “big picture” (the macro level of analysis of large social patterns).
Saint Aelred the Queer Such a notion runs counter to what we know of homosexuality, and what we know of its history and its biological origins. We now know, for example, Under the government of the United States, such activities were profoundly punished, and ruthlessly.
Emile Durkheim reasoned that crime is quite normal and has important functions for society. This assessment fits which theoretical approach? Which concept refers to the absence of sexual attraction to people of either sex?
The most widely used drug in . Start studying Social Problems Final. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. What concept refers to a basic image of society that guides theory and research? about how many people in the United States were counted among the poor?