Implementation Schedule Implementation is the process that turns strategies and plans into actions in order to accomplish strategic objectives and goals. How will we use the plan as a management tool? How and when will you roll-out your plan to your staff? How frequently will you send out updates?
Assessment Information source, data display Considering land form, slope, land use, vegetation cover, and wind direction, what area is likely to be affected if this volcano erupts?
How many people could be affected? Index of information List all available hospitals located not within 30 km radius of the volcano Status reporting Periodic assessment of volcanic activity Monitoring change How has the savanna desert boundary changed in the last 5 years? What changes in climate and land use could account for the on-going desertification process?
Analysis Research support What factors determine landslide activity in this area? According to these factors, what zones are susceptible to landslides?
Forecasting What population centers are likely to be affected by this hurricane?
What is the most likely lava flow path in case a volcanic eruption occurs? Policy development What areas in this growing urban region should be restricted to low-density development?
Aid allocation Where should mitigation strategies be prioritized? Project evaluation If erosion trends continue, what will be the economic impact on the project? What are the costs and benefits of instituting or not instituting erosion control measures?
The situation has since been aggravated by increasing rural migration, frequently occupying steep areas of questionable stability. City officials had two urgent tasks: By entering data on land use, landslide hazard susceptibility, topography, slope, and protected areas, a GIS database was created to identify areas potentially suitable for expansion.
City officials could then set minimum criteria for areas of new development i. Using the GIS, areas meeting the criteria could be identified. The number of people living in extreme and high landslide hazard areas could also be determined, providing the basis for selecting priority areas for implementing prevention measures relocation, construction, retrofitting, etc.
For this exercise, the advantages of using GIS as compared to manual mapping techniques are obvious. Not only does GIS afford great time savings for the overlay, display, assessment, and analysis of hazardous areasbut GIS also offers flexibility in selecting the minimum standards.
Tentatively selected standards can be tested for feasibility and adjusted. Using a GIS, this process would take minutes, while with manual methods, it would take a week of redrafting and recalculations In a landslide study for example, data on slope steepness, rock composition, hydrology, and other factors can be combined with data on past landslides to determine the conditions under which landslides are likely to occur see Chapter To analyze all possible combinations with manual techniques is a virtually impossible task; thus, typically only two factors are analyzed, and the composite units are combined with the landslide inventory map.
With GIS, however, it is possible to analyze an almost unlimited number of factors associated with historical events and present conditions, including present land use, presence of infrastructure, etc.
The resultant landslide hazard zonation map provides planners with a designation of the degree of landslide propensity for any given area. For floods, GIS and remotely-sensed data can be used to identify flood-prone areas, map floods in progress, delineate past floods, and predict future ones see Chapters 4 and 8.
GIS can combine information on slope, precipitation regimes, and river carrying capacity to model flood levels.
Synthesis information obtained from such an integrated study can help planners and decision-makers determine where to construct a dam or reservoir in order to control flooding. Likewise, a map depicting volcano locations may be entered into the GIS; volcano attributes such as periodicity, explosivity index VEIpast effects, and other attributes may be ascribed to each volcano record in a relational database.
Finally, information on other hazards can be combined to create new sub-sets of data, each one complying with different pre-established minimum standards for development.
GIS Applications at the Local Level At this level, GIS can be used in prefeasibility and feasibility sectoral project studies and natural resource management activities to help planners identify specific mitigation measures for high-risk investment projects and locate vulnerable critical facilities for the implementation of emergency preparedness and response activities.
In population centers, for example, large scale GIS databases resolutions of m2 per cell or less can display the location of high-rise buildings, hospitals, police stations, shelters, fire stations, and other lifeline elements. By combining these data with the hazards assessment map-previously collected or generated through GIS-planners can identify critical resources in high-risk areas and adequately formulate mitigation strategies.
When equitable distribution of land is defined in terms of earning capacity instead of parcel size, land capability and management practices have to be factored into the equation. Eight maps were coded into the system: Three synthesis maps were produced by overlaying present land use with land capability, present land use with erosion risk, and the development strategy with erosion risk.Introduction.
This article describes a new step process for conducting environmental scanning in North Carolina Cooperative Extension (NCCE). An environmental scan is a process of studying and analyzing the current and emerging forces that exist within an educational organization's environment (Boone, ; Boone, Safrit, & Jones, ).
Identification of strategies for satisfying records requirements. Strategies to satisfy the requirements that have been identified may include adopting policies, standards, guidelines, procedures and practices; such strategies can be applied separately or in combination (ISO , clause ).
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When the company decided to consolidate its different facilities, it began building up infrastructure and staff to support the change. Collections also developed a deep understanding of its current status, explains Bruce Getowicz, operations manager for the catalog company.
For part of the selection process, other strategic partners may be requested to assist the organization, by scanning their databases for learners who meet the selection criteria. These candidates will be invited to a presentation where the details of the programme – requirements and benefits – will be elucidated.
This new process has freed the analysts from the drudgery of scanning reports and has greatly increased employee satisfaction. Data integrity of the MRP increased from 10% to almost % and Quantum is now able to quickly respond to changing customer demand.