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Abstract Aging is commonly defined as the accumulation of diverse deleterious changes occurring in cells and tissues with advancing age that are responsible for the increased risk of disease and death. The major theories of aging are all specific of a particular cause of aging, providing useful and important insights for the understanding of age-related physiological changes.
However, a global view of them is needed when debating of a process which is still obscure in some of its aspects. In this context, the search for a single cause of aging has recently been replaced by the view of aging as an extremely complex, multifactorial process.
Therefore, the different theories of aging should not be considered as mutually exclusive, but complementary of others in the explanation of some or all the features of the normal aging process.
Nevertheless, several studies on animal models have shown that aging rates and life expectancy can be modified. The present review provides an overlook of the most commonly accepted theories of aging, providing current evidence of those interventions aimed at modifying the aging process.
Aging thesis, anti-aging medicine, caloric restriction, oxidative damage, inflammation, physical exercise Introduction Aging is commonly defined as the accumulation of diverse Aging thesis changes occurring in cells and tissues with advancing age that are responsible for the increased risk of disease and death Harman The observation that most of the animals living in a natural environment rarely becomes senescent because dying earlier for predation, disease, starvation, or drought Holliday suggests that aging is a phenomenon unique to the human species Hayflick b.
In other words, the advancing knowledge of hygiene and biomedicine has led us to discover the aging process, something that was teleologically not intended for us to be Aging thesis Hayflick b. The immediate consequence of the extended life expectancy is represented by the increasing number of older people in developed countries, an artefact of human civilization Hayflicka.
Life expectancy is defined as the average total number of years that a human expects to live.
Differently, life span is the maximum number of years that a human can live. The lengthening of life expectancy is mainly due to the elimination of most infectious diseases occurring in youth, better hygiene, and the adoption of antibiotics and vaccines.
Before examining the hypothesized biological factors at the basis of the aging process, it is crucial to underline that aging is not a disease. Based on this assumption, Hayflick estimates that a potential cure of the leading causes of death in old age ie, cardiovascular disease, stroke, cancer would only lead to a 15 year-increase in human life expectancy Hayflick b.
Therefore, even in this hypothetical condition, we will not become immortal, but we will only be able to experience how death occurs in the absence of disease. Because aging is negatively associated with the ability to respond to stress and positively related to the homeostatic balance and incidence of pathology, death remains the ultimate consequence of aging Kowald and Kirkwood The notion that aging requires treatment is based on the belief that becoming old is undesirable.
In the last decades, aging has received a negative connotation and become synonymous of deterioration, approaching pathology, and death.
If our society would learn to value old age to the same extent as presently done for youth, then the research aimed at slowing, stopping or reversing the aging process would be as unthinkable as the intervention on the developmental processes of youth.
Instead, what is desirable and demonstrably attainable at all times in life, is the prevention or resolution of pathology Hayflick The major theories of aging eg, the free radical theory Harmanthe immunologic theory Franceschi et al athe inflammation theory Chung et almitochondrial theory Cadenas and Davies are all specific of a particular cause of aging, providing useful and important insights for the understanding of physiological changes occurring with aging.
However, a global view of them is needed when debating about a process which is still obscure in some of its aspects Holliday In this context, the search for a single cause of aging such as a single gene or the decline of a body system has recently been replaced by the view of aging as an extremely complex, multifactorial process Kowald and Kirkwood ; Weinert and Timiras In fact, it is very likely that several processes simultaneously interact and operate at different levels of functional organization Franceschi et al b.
Therefore, different theories of aging should not be considered as mutually exclusive, but may be complementary of others to explain some or all the features of the normal aging process Weinert and Timiras This dream has never become reality because of the difficult understanding of the aging process.
To date, we know of no intervention that will slow, stop, or reverse the aging process in humans. It is also doubtful that intervention in the aging process has been achieved in any other life form in view of the absence of a generally accepted definition of aging and prec markers to measure its rate of change Hayflick Evolutionary theory of aging Evolutionary theory indicates aging as the result from a decline in the force of natural selection.
This lack of natural selection can be explained by the late age of onset for the disease 30—40 years allowing a carrier to reproduce before dying. Even earlier than these observations, Darwin explained that a natural selection occurs in organisms dying primarily from predation and environmental hazards and consequently evolving a life span optimized for their own particular environment Weinert and Timiras Supporting this hypothesis is the evidence that animals living in a protected environment eg, a zoo live longer, potentially reaching their maximum life spans Holliday For example, this theory was confirmed by Austad in a natural environment by comparing mainland opossums that are subject to predation to a population of opossums living on an island free of predators Austad subculture of aging • A theoretical perspective based on the belief that people maintain their self- concepts and social identities through their membership in a defined group.
Abstract. As the population grows older, an increasing share of the workforce will be past age Older workers have often been considered less productive than younger ones, raising the issue of whether an aging workforce will also be a less productive one.
A thesis submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Auburn University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science Auburn, Alabama aging population on the rise in the United States, universal design and aging in place are crucial.
According to the Administration on Aging (), “the aging population (65 and. Aging Decision Science Learning and Memory Meaning and Mental Representation Motivation and Emotion Neuroimaging Plasticity and Change Self-regulation and Control.
PhD Students. Sarah Raposo. Email: [email protected] Aging Motivation and Emotion Self and Identity. Postdoctoral Scholars. U.S. Department of Commerce. Economics and Statistics Administration U.S. CENSUS BUREAU.
schwenkreis.com An Aging Nation: The Older Population in. the United States. - Aging is an aspect of life which, regardless of race or culture, we all face and during this piece of work many of the characteristics of aging will be discussed, these will include the potential illnesses/diseases which are incurred that may have an effect on the elderly, along with critically examining the reasons for the changes in the.